Ethanol competitiveness in traditional and expansion areas in brazilian central-southern region
The sugarcane agribusiness chain is among the main contributors to Brazil's economic growth. In the 2010-2011 harvest, 8.1 million hectares were planted and produced 28 billion liters of ethanol. The forecast for the 2011-2012 harvest is 33 billion liters of ethanol, which would place Brazil as the world's largest ethanol producer. This study aims to determine the competitiveness of Brazilian ethanol using the Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM), developed by Monke and Pearson (1989), and considering a sugarcane traditional farming area and another expansion area. The results show that private and social profitabilities were positive, indicating competitiveness and economic efficiency, respectively, of the two chains. The ethanol chain at the traditional area was the most competitive one, and showed greater economic efficiency due to its higher value in both profitabilities. The transfers associated with production showed positive values for both chains. The greater positive value in the traditional-area chain reflects the high prices or the private incomes, indicating that there is positive transfer from the society to the production industry.
Keywords: Regional development; Policy analysis matrix; Private and social indicators.